Prostate Cancer Insight is a cancer of the prostate gland, which is a walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid in men.
In this article, we are going to see the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?
- The risk increases with aging in men. It is most common after 50 years of age
- A family history of cancer, BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes
- Race: Black men are more at risk to develop prostate cancer
Understanding changes in the prostate is essential. Some prostate cancers may not always show symptoms and hence make it difficult to diagnose.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
- Trouble urinating.
- Frequent urge to pass urine, especially at night.
- Interrupted urine stream.
- Blood in the urine.
- Blood in the semen.
- Painful ejaculation.
- Unusual weight loss.
- Nagging pain in the back, hips, or pelvis.
- Erectile dysfunction
The most common prostate screening test is Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test. It is a blood test that measures PSA level in nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL). It helps in the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patient. Some level of PSA present in the blood is normal.
However, if a man’s PSA level is greater than 4.0 ng/mL, a prostate biopsy is recommended to determine the presence of prostate cancer. The continuous rise in PSA level is the most common sign of Prostate cancer. PSA test can help diagnose smaller cancers without any symptoms.
In some cases, the rise in the PSA levels is without any symptoms. In such cases, doctors recommend repeating the PSA screening to confirm the original finding. Many factors are responsible for fluctuations in PSA level in men. For example, it might be increased during prostatitis or urinary tract infections, Prostate biopsy or surgery may also increase the levels of PSA, and some drugs may also influence the levels of PSA.
Men above 45 years of age are recommended regular PSA screening to help early diagnosis and treatment planning. The PSA test sometimes might produce a false-positive or a false-negative result. The other limitations of PSA screening include early detection of elevated PSA levels may not reduce the chance of death. It might also result in over-diagnosis leading to over-treatment of the condition.
PSA tests can also help to monitor the health records of patients with a history of prostate cancer.
Treatment of prostate cancer, depending on the type and nature, includes radiation, surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, or other treatments.